7 Types of Cognitive Distortions
Cognitive Distortions refer to our errors in thinking that lead to faulty assumptions and misconceptions. Aaron T. Beck, founder of cognitive therapy, believes that people with emotional difficulties tend to commit characteristic ”logical errors” that distort objective reality. He came up with 7 types of cognitive distortions. I will define and provide an example for each.
Arbitrary inferences refer to making conclusions without supporting and relevant information. This includes “catastrophizing,” or thinking of the absolute worst scenario and outcomes for most situations. For example, you believe that someone doesn’t like you without actual information to support that belief.
Selective Abstraction consists of forming conclusions based on an isolated detail of an event. This includes ignoring the context or other relevant details. For example, you fail a quiz and you think that this will ruin your entire grade, when really the quiz was only worth 3% and you still have an entire course to ace.
Overgeneralization is a process of holding extreme beliefs on the basis of a single incident and applying them inappropriately to dissimilar events of settings. This is sort of like selective abstraction except you generalize the experience to other events. For example, after you failed the quiz, you think that you will now fail quizzes in all other classes. Another example is when you embarrassed yourself in public speaking and you now think that you will always embarrass yourself when speaking to anyone.
Magnification and Minimization consist of perceiving a case or situation in a greater or lesser light than it truly deserves. An example of magnification is when you make a small mistake and you think that you’ve made a really big one. An example of minimization is when you failed a test worth 25% and you think that this will not impact your grade.
Personalization is a tendency for individuals to relate external events to themselves, even when there is no basis for making this connection. For example, this is like when you blame yourself for something you didn’t do.
Labeling and mislabeling involve portraying one’s identity on the basis of imperfections and mistakes made in the past and allowing them to define one’s true identity. For example, you screwed up in the past, and now you think you are an evil person.
Dichotomous thinking involves categorizing experiences in either-or extremes. It’s a type of polarized thinking where events are labeled as either black or white. For example, you think that people are either good or bad.
If you guys can come up with examples of each, message me.
Top Ten Myths About Introverts
Myth #1 – Introverts don’t like to talk.
This is not true. Introverts just don’t talk unless they have something to say. They hate small talk. Get an introvert talking about something they are interested in, and they won’t shut up for days.
Myth #2 – Introverts are shy.
Shyness has nothing to do with being an Introvert. Introverts are not necessarily afraid of people. What they need is a reason to interact. They don’t interact for the sake of interacting. If you want to talk to an Introvert, just start talking. Don’t worry about being polite.
Myth #3 – Introverts are rude.
Introverts often don’t see a reason for beating around the bush with social pleasantries. They want everyone to just be real and honest. Unfortunately, this is not acceptable in most settings, so Introverts can feel a lot of pressure to fit in, which they find exhausting.
Myth #4 – Introverts don’t like people.
On the contrary, Introverts intensely value the few friends they have. They can count their close friends on one hand. If you are lucky enough for an introvert to consider you a friend, you probably have a loyal ally for life. Once you have earned their respect as being a person of substance, you’re in.
Myth #5 – Introverts don’t like to go out in public.
Nonsense. Introverts just don’t like to go out in public FOR AS LONG. They also like to avoid the complications that are involved in public activities. They take in data and experiences very quickly, and as a result, don’t need to be there for long to “get it.” They’re ready to go home, recharge, and process it all. In fact, recharging is absolutely crucial for Introverts.
Myth #6 – Introverts always want to be alone.
Introverts are perfectly comfortable with their own thoughts. They think a lot. They daydream. They like to have problems to work on, puzzles to solve. But they can also get incredibly lonely if they don’t have anyone to share their discoveries with. They crave an authentic and sincere connection with ONE PERSON at a time.
Myth #7 – Introverts are weird.
Introverts are often individualists. They don’t follow the crowd. They’d prefer to be valued for their novel ways of living. They think for themselves and because of that, they often challenge the norm. They don’t make most decisions based on what is popular or trendy.
Myth #8 – Introverts are aloof nerds.
Introverts are people who primarily look inward, paying close attention to their thoughts and emotions. It’s not that they are incapable of paying attention to what is going on around them, it’s just that their inner world is much more stimulating and rewarding to them.
Myth #9 – Introverts don’t know how to relax and have fun.
Introverts typically relax at home or in nature, not in busy public places. Introverts are not thrill seekers and adrenaline junkies. If there is too much talking and noise going on, they shut down. Their brains are too sensitive to the neurotransmitter called Dopamine. Introverts and Extroverts have different dominant neuro-pathways. Just look it up.
Myth #10 – Introverts can fix themselves and become Extroverts.
Introverts cannot “fix themselves” and deserve respect for their naturaltemperament and contributions to the human race. In fact, one study(Silverman, 1986) showed that the percentage of Introverts increases with IQ.